كتاب  Epsiprantelكتب الطب

كتاب Epsiprantel

Epsiprantel من كتب طب بيطرى Evidence ratings Evidence Quality Evidence Type A Good evidence to support a recommendation for use B Moderate evidence to support a recommendation for use 1 Species-specific evidence from at least one large randomized and controlled trial (RCT) or multiple small RCTs C Insufficient evidence to support a recommendation for use D Moderate evidence to support a recommendation against use E Good evidence to support a recommendation against use 2 Species-specific evidence from a small RCT, disease models, large case studies, pharmacokinetic studies using surrogate endpoints, or evidence from well-designed trials in a different species that is considered appropriate for comparison 3 Dramatic results from either well-designed, species-specific trials without controls, controlled trials without randomization, or small case studies 4 Pharmacokinetic studies without surrogate endpoints or well designed pharmacodynamic studies in healthy animals 5 In vitro studies 6 Opinions of respected authorities on the basis of clinical experience or reports of expert committees © 2008 The United States Pharmacopeial Convention All rights reserved EPSIPRANTEL Veterinary—Oral-Local A commonly used brand name for a veterinary-labeled product is Cestex . Note: For a listing of dosage forms and brand names by country availability, see the Dosage Forms section(s). Category: Anthelmintic. Indications Note: The text between EL US and EL describes uses that are not included in U.S. product labeling. Text between EL CAN and EL describes uses that are not included in Canadian product labeling. The EL US or EL CAN designation may signify a lack of product availability in the country indicated. See the Dosage Forms section of this monograph to confirm availability. Cats and dogs Accepted Cestode, gastrointestinal, infection (treatment)— Epsiprantel tablets are indicated in the treatment of tapeworms, Dipylidium caninum in cats and dogs, Taenia taeniaeformis in cats, and Taenia pisiformis in dogs. {R-1} Potentially effective Cestode, gastrointestinal, infection (treatment)— Cats and dogs: EL US,CAN There is evidence to suggest that epsiprantel is effective in the treatment of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis; however, there are insufficient data to recommend a dosage that can be relied upon to clear the infection in all animals treated (Evidence rating: A-1). {R-9-11} EL Chemistry Chemical group: Pyrazino benzazepine. {R-5} Chemical name: ( ± )-2-(Cyclohexylcarbonyl)- 2,3,6,7,8,12b-hexahydropyrazino[2, 1- a ][2]benzazepin-4(1 H )-one. {R-4} Molecular formula: C 20 H 26 N 2 0 2 . {R-4} Molecular weight: 326.43. {R-1; 4} Description: A stable, white solid. {R-1} Solubility: Sparingly soluble in water. {R-1} Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics Mechanism of action/Effect: The mechanism of action of epsiprantel appears to be similar to that of praziquantel, a drug that disrupts the regulation of calcium and other cations. Tetanic muscle contraction and paralysis occurs in the parasite, and the tegument becomes vacuolized. {R-8; 10} Absorption: Minimal absorption occurs in cats and dogs after oral administration. {R-1; 5} Biotransformation: There is no evidence that epsiprantel is metabolized. {R-8} Concentrations: Peak plasma concentration— Cats: In 83% of cats in one study, the plasma concentration of epsiprantel was below the level of detection in all samples taken after an oral dose of 5.5 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg). {R- 8} When plasma epsiprantel could be measured, the peak concentration was 0.21 mcg/mL at 30 minutes after administration of the dose. {R-8} Dogs: 0.13 mcg/mL (range, <0.5–0.36) at 1 hour after an oral dose of 5.5 mg/kg. {R-8} Elimination: Cats and dogs— Because only trace amounts are absorbed, epsiprantel is predominantly eliminated in the feces. {R-8} Less than 0.1% of the dose is eliminated in the urine in dogs. {R-8} Precautions to Consider Reproduction/Pregnancy There is no information on the safety of administering epsiprantel to breeding
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Evidence ratings
Evidence Quality
Evidence Type
A
Good evidence to support a recommendation for use
B
Moderate evidence to support a recommendation for use
1
Species-specific evidence from at least one large randomized and
controlled trial (RCT) or multiple small RCTs
C
Insufficient evidence to support a recommendation for use
D
Moderate evidence to support a recommendation against use
E
Good evidence to support a recommendation against use
2
Species-specific evidence from a small RCT, disease models,
large case studies, pharmacokinetic studies using surrogate
endpoints, or evidence from well-designed trials in a different
species that is considered appropriate for comparison
3
Dramatic results from either well-designed, species-specific trials
without controls, controlled trials without randomization, or small
case studies
4
Pharmacokinetic studies without surrogate endpoints or well
designed pharmacodynamic studies in healthy animals
5
In vitro
studies
6
Opinions of respected authorities on the basis of clinical
experience or reports of expert committees
© 2008 The United States Pharmacopeial Convention
All rights reserved
EPSIPRANTEL Veterinary—Oral-Local
A commonly used brand name for a veterinary-labeled
product is
Cestex
.
Note: For a listing of dosage forms and brand names by
country availability, see the
Dosage Forms
section(s).
Category:
Anthelmintic.
Indications
Note: The text between
EL
US
and
EL
describes uses that
are not included in U.S. product labeling. Text
between
EL
CAN
and
EL
describes uses that are not
included in Canadian product labeling.
The
EL
US
or
EL
CAN
designation may signify a lack
of product availability in the country indicated.
See the
Dosage Forms
section of this monograph
to confirm availability.
Cats
and
dogs
Accepted
Cestode, gastrointestinal, infection (treatment)—
Epsiprantel tablets are indicated in the treatment of
tapeworms,
Dipylidium caninum
in cats and dogs,
Taenia taeniaeformis
in cats, and
Taenia pisiformis
in dogs.
{R-1}
Potentially effective
Cestode, gastrointestinal, infection (treatment)—
Cats
and
dogs:
EL
US,CAN
There is evidence to suggest that
epsiprantel is effective in the treatment of
Echinococcus granulosus
and
Echinococcus
multilocularis;
however, there are insufficient data
to recommend a dosage that can be relied upon to
clear the infection in all animals treated (Evidence
rating: A-1).
{R-9-11}
EL
Chemistry
Chemical group:
Pyrazino benzazepine.
{R-5}
Chemical name:
(
±
)-2-(Cyclohexylcarbonyl)-
2,3,6,7,8,12b-hexahydropyrazino[2, 1-
a
][2]benzazepin-4(1
H
)-one.
{R-4}
Molecular formula:
C
20
H
26
N
2
0
2
.
{R-4}
Molecular weight:
326.43.
{R-1; 4}
Description:
A stable, white solid.
{R-1}
Solubility:
Sparingly soluble in water.
{R-1}
Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics
Mechanism of action/Effect:
The mechanism of
action of epsiprantel appears to be similar to that of
praziquantel, a drug that disrupts the regulation of
calcium and other cations. Tetanic muscle
contraction and paralysis occurs in the parasite, and
the tegument becomes vacuolized.
{R-8; 10}
Absorption:
Minimal absorption occurs in cats and
dogs after oral administration.
{R-1; 5}
Biotransformation:
There is no evidence that
epsiprantel is metabolized.
{R-8}
Concentrations:
Peak plasma concentration—
Cats:
In 83% of cats in one study, the plasma
concentration of epsiprantel was below the level
of detection in all samples taken after an oral
dose of 5.5 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg).
{R-
8}
When plasma epsiprantel could be measured,
the peak concentration was 0.21 mcg/mL at 30
minutes after administration of the dose.
{R-8}
Dogs:
0.13 mcg/mL (range, <0.5–0.36) at 1 hour
after an oral dose of 5.5 mg/kg.
{R-8}
Elimination:
Cats
and
dogs—
Because only trace
amounts are absorbed, epsiprantel is predominantly
eliminated in the feces.
{R-8}
Less than 0.1% of the
dose is eliminated in the urine in dogs.
{R-8}
Precautions to Consider
Reproduction/Pregnancy
There is no information on the safety of administering
epsiprantel to breeding

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تم اضافته في : السبت , 26 مارس 2016م.
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Epsiprantel من كتب طب بيطرى

Evidence Type 
A
Good evidence to support a recommendation for use 
B
Moderate evidence to support a recommendation for use 
1
Species-specific evidence from at least one large randomized and 
controlled trial (RCT) or multiple small RCTs 
C
Insufficient evidence to support a recommendation for use 
D
Moderate evidence to support a recommendation against use 
E
Good evidence to support a recommendation against use 
2
Species-specific evidence from a small RCT, disease models, 
large case studies, pharmacokinetic studies using surrogate 
endpoints, or evidence from well-designed trials in a different 
species that is considered appropriate for comparison 
 3
Dramatic results from either well-designed, species-specific trials 
without controls, controlled trials without randomization, or small 
case studies 
 4
Pharmacokinetic studies without surrogate endpoints or well 
designed pharmacodynamic studies in healthy animals 
 5
In vitro
 studies 
 6
Opinions of respected authorities on the basis of clinical 
experience or reports of expert committees 
© 2008 The United States Pharmacopeial Convention              
                                                                        All rights reserved
EPSIPRANTEL Veterinary—Oral-Local 
A commonly used brand name for a veterinary-labeled 
product is 
Cestex

Note: For a listing of dosage forms and brand names by 
country availability, see the 
Dosage Forms
section(s). 
Category:
 Anthelmintic. 
Indications 
Note: The text between 
EL
US 
and
 EL
 describes uses that 
are not included in U.S. product labeling. Text 
between 
EL
CAN 
and
 EL
 describes uses that are not 
included in Canadian product labeling. 
The 
EL
US
or 
EL
CAN
 designation may signify a lack 
of product availability in the country indicated. 
See the 
Dosage Forms
 section of this monograph 
to confirm availability. 
Cats 
and
            dogs                                                            
Accepted 
Cestode, gastrointestinal, infection (treatment)—
Epsiprantel tablets are indicated in the treatment of 
tapeworms, 
Dipylidium caninum
 in cats and dogs, 
Taenia taeniaeformis
 in cats, and 
Taenia pisiformis
in dogs.
{R-1} 
Potentially effective 
Cestode, gastrointestinal, infection (treatment)—
Cats 
and
 dogs:
EL
US,CAN
There is evidence to suggest that 
epsiprantel is effective in the treatment of 
Echinococcus granulosus
 and 
Echinococcus 
multilocularis;
 however, there are insufficient data 
to recommend a dosage that can be relied upon to 
clear the infection in all animals treated (Evidence 
rating: A-1).
{R-9-11}
EL
Chemistry 
Chemical group:
Pyrazino benzazepine.
{R-5}
Chemical name:
(
±
)-2-(Cyclohexylcarbonyl)-
2,3,6,7,8,12b-hexahydropyrazino[2, 1-
a
][2]benzazepin-4(1
H
)-one.
{R-4}
Molecular formula:
C
20
H
26
N
2
0
2
.
{R-4}
Molecular weight:
 326.43.
{R-1; 4}
Description:
A stable, white solid.
{R-1}
Solubility:
Sparingly soluble in water.
{R-1}
Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics 
Mechanism of action/Effect:
The mechanism of 
action of epsiprantel appears to be similar to that of 
praziquantel, a drug that disrupts the regulation of 
calcium and other cations. Tetanic muscle 
contraction and paralysis occurs in the parasite, and 
the tegument becomes vacuolized.
{R-8; 10}
Absorption:
 Minimal absorption occurs in cats and 
dogs after oral administration.
{R-1; 5}
Biotransformation:
There is no evidence that 
epsiprantel is metabolized.
{R-8}
Concentrations:
 Peak plasma concentration— 
Cats: 
In 83% of cats in one study, the plasma 
concentration of epsiprantel was below the level 
of detection in all samples taken after an oral 
dose of 5.5 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg).
{R-
8}
 When plasma epsiprantel could be measured, 
the peak concentration was 0.21 mcg/mL at 30 
minutes after administration of the dose.
{R-8}
Dogs: 
0.13 mcg/mL (range, <0.5–0.36) at 1 hour 
after an oral dose of 5.5 mg/kg.
{R-8}
Elimination:
Cats 
and
 dogs—
Because only trace 
amounts are absorbed, epsiprantel is predominantly 
eliminated in the feces.
{R-8}
 Less than 0.1% of the 
dose is eliminated in the urine in dogs.
 {R-8}
Precautions to Consider 
Reproduction/Pregnancy 
There is no information on the safety of administering 
 



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