كتاب  BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE UTERUS OF COWS WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINEDكتب الطب

كتاب BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE UTERUS OF COWS WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINED

BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE UTERUS OF COWS WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINED من كتب طب بيطرى WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINED MICHAŁKACZMAROWSKI,EDWARDMALINOWSKI AND HANNAMARKIEWICZ DepartmentofPathophysiologyofReproductionandM ammaryGland, NationalVeterinaryResearchInstitute, 58*090Bydgoszcz,Poland e*mail:[email protected] Received for publication September 24, 2003. Abstract The aim of the study was to define the species of microorganisms isolated from the uterus of healthy cows (control group) and cows affected with foetal membrane retained(FMR)beforeandafteranexperimentaltherapyw ith the use of an immunomodulator and antibiotics versus commonlyusedmethods(antibiotic+ß*blockerorantibiotic+ PGF2 α ). The examinations were carried out on three farms with similar system of rearing and nutrition on 95 cows with FMR. The control group consisted of 21 cows without postpartumdisturbances.Smearsfromtheuterusweretakena t 0 and the 21 st  d of observation. Most frequently Escherichia coli  and other species of Enterobacteriaceae  family were isolated.Thesespecieswerestatedin67.4%ofsickcowsa nd in 47.6% of healthy cows. The degree of Arcanobacterium pyogenes  infection was almost identical in healthy and sick cows (8.4 and 9.5% respectively). Streptococcus sp. was isolated from 15.8% of FMR cows and from 19% of control ones. Staphylococci were isolated from 12.6% of FMR and from 9.5% of control cows. Other bacteria species were isolated from less than 10% of the examined cows. The best eliminationofinfections(65%)wasnotedincowstreatedwith intrauterinary inlocations of antibiotics (neomycin and ampicillin) combined with the lysozyme dimer i.m. injection . Theworstresultswerenotedasaneffectofinlocationofthes e antibiotics only and antibiotics combined with ß*blocker (40%). The species of bacteria in the uterus were similar  in healthyandsickcows.However,on21 st dayaftertreatment A. pyogenes wasisolatedonlyfromtheuterusofthesickanimals. This pathogen was identified in 10 cows (83.3%) from 12 eliminatedbecauseofinfertility. Key words : cows,retainedplacenta,bacteria. Foetal membrane retained (FMR) is often the consequence of abortions or premature parturitions, immunologicalandhormonaldisturbances,atonyoft he uterus, and  some septic diseases as brucellosis, infectious rhinotracheitis, campylobacteriosis, trichomonadosis (1, 10, 28), neosporosis (12), leptospirosis, mycoplasmosis (19, 24) and yeast infection(6).Atpresentonlyneosporosisconstitu tesan importantproblem,especiallyrelatedtoabortion( 8,14). Thedecreaseinlocalimmunity,opencervixof the uterus, presence of afterbirth in the uterus an d manual treatment are the main cause of complication s and growth of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Infections are caused mostly by Arcanobacterium pyogenes  and anaerobes, like Fusobacterium necrophorum  and Bacterioides melaninogenicus (5,10,20, 21).These pathogens show synergic activity. Fus. necrophorum  produces a toxin which decreases phagocyte cell activity. Bac . melaninogenicus  and Bac. fragilis  produce a substance decreasing also phagocyte cell activity. A. pyogenes secretes a growth factor for Fus. necrophorum  (4, 20). The toxins of certain strains of E. coli  and A. pyogenes decrease phagocytic activity of leukocytes (29). Neutrophil function is a determining factor for the development of FMR in dairy cattle. Also, depressed production of Il*8 may be a factor affecting neutro phil functionincowsdevelopingFMR(13,27). Manual help during parturition and manual treatment of FMR are often the cause of damage in uterine mucous membrane. This damage can be also a result of intrauterine inlocation of irritating dru gs and disinfectant fluids. These substances lead to necro tic changes of the epithelium of mucous membrane and decrease the phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Th e fluid which contains fragments of afterbirth and afterbirth fluid is a very good nutrient medium for bacteria(22,25). The development of metritis ichorosa  with heavy, toxic systemic symptoms can be the effect of infectionoflochialfluidandfoetalmembranes.An other consequence of FMR is purulent metritis and then chronicendometritis(2,16,23). The aim of the study was to define the species of microorganisms present in the uterus of healthy and
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من كتب طب بيطرى - مكتبة كتب الطب.

وصف الكتاب : BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE UTERUS OF COWS WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINED من كتب طب بيطرى

WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINED
MICHAŁKACZMAROWSKI,EDWARDMALINOWSKI
AND
HANNAMARKIEWICZ
DepartmentofPathophysiologyofReproductionandM
ammaryGland,
NationalVeterinaryResearchInstitute,
58*090Bydgoszcz,Poland
e*mail:[email protected]
Received for publication September 24, 2003.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to define the species of
microorganisms isolated from the uterus of healthy cows
(control group) and cows affected with foetal membrane
retained(FMR)beforeandafteranexperimentaltherapyw
ith
the use of an immunomodulator and antibiotics versus
commonlyusedmethods(antibiotic+ß*blockerorantibiotic+
PGF2
α
). The examinations were carried out on three farms
with similar system of rearing and nutrition on 95 cows with
FMR. The control group consisted of 21 cows without
postpartumdisturbances.Smearsfromtheuterusweretakena
t
0 and the 21
st
 d of observation. Most frequently
Escherichia
coli
 and other species of
Enterobacteriaceae
 family were
isolated.Thesespecieswerestatedin67.4%ofsickcowsa
nd
in 47.6% of healthy cows. The degree of
Arcanobacterium
pyogenes
 infection was almost identical in healthy and sick
cows (8.4 and 9.5% respectively).
Streptococcus
sp. was
isolated from 15.8% of FMR cows and from 19% of control
ones. Staphylococci were isolated from 12.6% of FMR and
from 9.5% of control cows. Other bacteria species were
isolated from less than 10% of the examined cows. The best
eliminationofinfections(65%)wasnotedincowstreatedwith
intrauterinary inlocations of antibiotics (neomycin and
ampicillin) combined with the lysozyme dimer i.m. injection
.
Theworstresultswerenotedasaneffectofinlocationofthes
e
antibiotics only and antibiotics combined with ß*blocker
(40%). The species of bacteria in the uterus were similar
 in
healthyandsickcows.However,on21
st
dayaftertreatment
A.
pyogenes
wasisolatedonlyfromtheuterusofthesickanimals.
This pathogen was identified in 10 cows (83.3%) from 12
eliminatedbecauseofinfertility.
Key words
:
cows,retainedplacenta,bacteria.
Foetal membrane retained (FMR) is often the
consequence of abortions or premature parturitions,
immunologicalandhormonaldisturbances,atonyoft
he
uterus, and  some septic diseases as brucellosis,
infectious
rhinotracheitis,
campylobacteriosis,
trichomonadosis (1, 10, 28), neosporosis (12),
leptospirosis, mycoplasmosis (19, 24) and yeast
infection(6).Atpresentonlyneosporosisconstitu
tesan
importantproblem,especiallyrelatedtoabortion(
8,14).
Thedecreaseinlocalimmunity,opencervixof
the uterus, presence of afterbirth in the uterus an
d
manual treatment are the main cause of complication
s
and growth of pathogenic and opportunistic
microorganisms. Infections are caused mostly by
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
 and anaerobes, like
Fusobacterium necrophorum

and
Bacterioides
melaninogenicus
(5,10,20, 21).These pathogens show
synergic activity.
Fus. necrophorum
 produces a toxin
which decreases phagocyte cell activity.
Bac .
melaninogenicus
 and
Bac. fragilis
 produce a substance
decreasing also phagocyte cell activity.
A. pyogenes
secretes a growth factor for
Fus. necrophorum
 (4, 20).
The toxins of certain strains of
E. coli
 and
A. pyogenes
decrease phagocytic activity of leukocytes (29).
Neutrophil function is a determining factor for the
development of FMR in dairy cattle. Also, depressed
production of Il*8 may be a factor affecting neutro
phil
functionincowsdevelopingFMR(13,27).
Manual help during parturition and manual
treatment of FMR are often the cause of damage in
uterine mucous membrane. This damage can be also a
result of intrauterine inlocation of irritating dru
gs and
disinfectant fluids. These substances lead to necro
tic
changes of the epithelium of mucous membrane and
decrease the phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Th
e
fluid which contains fragments of afterbirth and
afterbirth fluid is a very good nutrient medium for
bacteria(22,25).
The development of
metritis ichorosa
 with
heavy, toxic systemic symptoms can be the effect of
infectionoflochialfluidandfoetalmembranes.An
other
consequence of FMR is purulent metritis and then
chronicendometritis(2,16,23).
The aim of the study was to define the species
of microorganisms present in the uterus of healthy
and

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BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE UTERUS OF COWS WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINED من كتب طب بيطرى

 


WITH FOETAL MEMBRANE RETAINED
MICHAŁKACZMAROWSKI,EDWARDMALINOWSKI
AND
HANNAMARKIEWICZ
DepartmentofPathophysiologyofReproductionandM
ammaryGland,
NationalVeterinaryResearchInstitute,
58*090Bydgoszcz,Poland
e*mail:[email protected]
Received for publication September 24, 2003.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to define the species of
microorganisms isolated from the uterus of healthy cows
(control group) and cows affected with foetal membrane
retained(FMR)beforeandafteranexperimentaltherapyw
ith
the  use  of  an  immunomodulator  and  antibiotics  versus
commonlyusedmethods(antibiotic+ß*blockerorantibiotic+
PGF2
α
). The examinations were carried out on three farms
with similar system of rearing and nutrition on 95 cows with
FMR.  The  control  group  consisted  of  21  cows  without
postpartumdisturbances.Smearsfromtheuterusweretakena
t
0 and the 21
st
 d of observation. Most frequently 
Escherichia
coli
 and other species of 
Enterobacteriaceae
 family were
isolated.Thesespecieswerestatedin67.4%ofsickcowsa
nd
in 47.6% of healthy cows. The degree of 
Arcanobacterium
pyogenes
 infection was almost identical in healthy and sick
cows (8.4 and 9.5% respectively). 
Streptococcus  
sp. was
isolated from 15.8% of FMR cows and from 19% of control
ones. Staphylococci were isolated from 12.6% of FMR and
from 9.5% of control cows. Other bacteria species were
isolated from less than 10% of the examined cows. The best
eliminationofinfections(65%)wasnotedincowstreatedwith
intrauterinary   inlocations   of   antibiotics   (neomycin   and
ampicillin) combined with the lysozyme dimer i.m. injection
.
Theworstresultswerenotedasaneffectofinlocationofthes
e
antibiotics  only  and  antibiotics  combined  with  ß*blocker
(40%). The species of bacteria in the uterus were similar
 in
healthyandsickcows.However,on21
st
dayaftertreatment
A.
pyogenes
wasisolatedonlyfromtheuterusofthesickanimals.
This pathogen was identified in 10 cows (83.3%) from 12
eliminatedbecauseofinfertility.
Key words
:
cows,retainedplacenta,bacteria.
Foetal membrane retained (FMR) is often the
consequence  of  abortions  or  premature  parturitions,
immunologicalandhormonaldisturbances,atonyoft
he
uterus,  and    some  septic  diseases  as  brucellosis,
infectious
rhinotracheitis,
campylobacteriosis,
trichomonadosis   (1,   10,   28),   neosporosis   (12),
leptospirosis,   mycoplasmosis   (19,   24)   and   yeast
infection(6).Atpresentonlyneosporosisconstitu
tesan
importantproblem,especiallyrelatedtoabortion(
8,14).
Thedecreaseinlocalimmunity,opencervixof
the uterus, presence of afterbirth in the uterus an
d
manual treatment are the main cause of complication
s
and    growth    of    pathogenic    and    opportunistic
microorganisms.  Infections  are  caused  mostly  by
Arcanobacterium   pyogenes
    and    anaerobes,    like
Fusobacterium    necrophorum

and
Bacterioides
melaninogenicus
(5,10,20, 21).These pathogens show
synergic activity. 
Fus.  necrophorum
 produces a toxin
which   decreases   phagocyte   cell   activity.   
Bac  .
melaninogenicus
 and 
Bac. fragilis
 produce a substance
decreasing also phagocyte cell activity. 
A.  pyogenes
secretes a growth factor for 
Fus. necrophorum
 (4, 20).
The toxins of certain strains of 
E. coli
 and 
A. pyogenes
decrease   phagocytic   activity   of   leukocytes   (29).
Neutrophil function is a determining factor for the
development of FMR in dairy cattle. Also, depressed
production of Il*8 may be a factor affecting neutro
phil
functionincowsdevelopingFMR(13,27).
Manual help during parturition and manual
treatment of FMR are often the cause of damage in
uterine mucous membrane. This damage can be also a
result of intrauterine inlocation of irritating dru
gs and
disinfectant fluids. These substances lead to necro
tic
changes of the epithelium of mucous membrane and
decrease the phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Th
e
fluid  which  contains  fragments  of  afterbirth  and
afterbirth fluid is a very good nutrient medium for
bacteria(22,25).
The  development  of  
metritis  ichorosa
  with
heavy, toxic systemic symptoms can be the effect of
infectionoflochialfluidandfoetalmembranes.An
other
consequence of FMR is purulent metritis and then
chronicendometritis(2,16,23).
The aim of the study was to define the species
of microorganisms present in the uterus of healthy
and



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