كتاب Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistryكتب الطب

كتاب Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry

Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry 4th edition Jan Lindhe Thorkild Karring . Niklaus P. Lang Editors Contents Foreword xv Giorgio Vogel Preface xvii Jan Lindhe Classification of Periodontal Diseases xix Denis F. Kinane and Jan Lindhe Adult periodontitis — chronic periodontitis Early-onset forms of periodontitis — aggressive periodontitis Systemic disease forms of periodontitis Necrotizing forms of periodontitis — necrotizing forms of periodontal diseases Contributors xxi Basic Concepts Chapter 1 Anatomy of the Periodontium 3 Jan Lindhe, Thorkild Karring and Mauricio Araujo Introduction 3 Gingiva 5 Macroscopic anatomy 5 Microscopic anatomy 8 Periodontal ligament 27 Root cementum 31 Alveolar bone 34 Blood supply of the periodontium 43 Lymphatic system of the periodontium 47 Nerves of the periodontium 48 Chapter 2 Epidemiology of Periodontal Diseases 50 Panos N. Papapanou and Jan Lindhe Methodological issues 50 Examination methods — index systems 50 Critical evaluation 52 Prevalence of periodontal diseases 54 Introduction 54 Periodontitis in adults 54 Periodontitis in children and adolescents 57 Periodontitis and tooth loss 61 Risk factors for periodontitis 61 Introduction and definitions 61 Studies of putative risk factors for periodontitis 63 Longitudinal studies and conclusions 68 Periodontal infections and risk for systemic disease 70 Atherosclerosis — cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disease 70 Preterm birth 72 Diabetes mellitus 73 Concluding remarks 73 Chapter 3 Dental Plaque and Calculus 81 Niklaus P. Lang, Andrea Mombelli and Rolf Attstrom Microbial considerations 81 General introduction to plaque formation 83 Dental plaque as a biofilm 85 Structure of dental plaque 85 Supragingival plaque 85 Subgingival plaque 90 Peri-implant plaque 98 Dental calculus 98 Clinical appearance, distribution and clinical diagnosis 98 Attachment to tooth surfaces and implants 100 Mineralization, composition and structure 101 Clinical implications 102 Chapter 4 Microbiology of Periodontal Disease 106 Sigmund S. Socransky and Anne D. Haffajee Introduction 106 Periodontal diseases and other infectious diseases 106 Unique features of periodontal infections 107 Historical perspective 108 The early search 108 The decline of interest in microorganisms 110 Non-specific plaque hypothesis 110 Mixed anaerobic infections 110 VI • CONTENTS Return to specificity in microbial etiology of periodontal diseases 110 Changing concepts of the microbial etiology of periodontal diseases 111 Current suspected pathogens of destructive periodontal diseases 112 Criteria for defining periodontal pathogens 112 Periodontal pathogens 114 Mixed infections 122 The nature of dental plaque — the biofilm way of life 122 The nature of biofilms 122 Properties of biofilms 123 The oral biofilms that lead to periodontal diseases 125 Microbial complexes 126 Factors that affect the composition of subgingival biofilms 127 Microbial composition of supra and subgingival biofilms 132 Prerequisites for periodontal disease initiation and progression 132 The virulent periodontal pathogen 133 The local environment 133 Host susceptibility 134 Mechanisms of pathogenicity 135 Essential factors for colonization of a subgingival species 135 Final comments 139 Chapter 5 Host-Parasite Interactions in Periodontal Disease 150 Denis F. Kinane, Tord Berglundh and Jan Lindhe Initiation and progression of periodontal disease 150 Introduction 150 Initiation of periodontal disease 150 Initial, early, established and advanced lesions 155 Host-parasite interactions 163 Introduction 163 Microbial virulence factors 164 Host defense processes 165 Overall summary 175 Chapter 6 Modifying Factors: Diabetes, Puberty, Pregnancy and the Menopause and Tobacco Smoking 179 Richard Palmer and Mena Soory Diabetes mellitus 179 Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus 180 Clinical symptoms 180 Oral and periodontal effects 180 Association of periodontal infection and diabetic control 181 Modification of the host/bacteria relationship in diabetes 182 Periodontal treatment 183 Puberty, pregnancy and the menopause 183 Puberty and menstruation 184 Pregnancy 184 Periodontal treatment during pregnancy 186 Menopause and osteoporosis 186 Hormonal contraceptives 187 Tobacco smoking 188 Periodontal disease in smokers 189 Modification of the host/bacteria relationship in smoking 190 Smoking cessation 192 Chapter 7 Plaque Induced Gingival Disease 198 Noel Claffey Histopathologic features of gingivitis 200 Gingivitis associated with local contributing factors 200 Tooth abnormalities such as enamel pearls and cemental tears 200 Dental restorations 200 Root fractures 201 Cervical root resorption 201 Treatment of plaque induced gingivitis 201 Gingival diseases modified by endocrine factors (see also Chapter 6) 201 Pregnancy associated gingivitis 201 Puberty associated gingivitis 202 Menstrual cycle associated gingivitis 202 Pyogenic granuloma of pregnancy 202 Gingival diseases modified by malnutrition 202 Gingival diseases modified by systemic conditions 203 Diabetes mellitus 203 Leukemias and other blood dysplasias 203 Gingival diseases modified by medications 203 Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (see also Chapter 10) 205 Microbiology, host response and predisposing factors 205 Host response in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis 206 Treatment of NUG 207 Chapter 8 Chronic Periodontitis 209 Denis F. Kinane and Jan Lindhe Risk factors or susceptibility to chronic periodontitis 211 Bacterial risk factors 211 Age 211 Smoking 211 Host response related 212 Scientific basis for periodontal therapy 213 Tooth loss 213 Subgingival instrumentation and maintenance 213 Effect of surgical treatment 214 Comparisons of surgical and non-surgical therapy 214 CONTENTS • VII Chapter 9 Aggressive Periodontitis 216 Maurizio S. Tonetti and Andrea Mombelli Classification and clinical syndromes 217 Epidemiology 218 Primary dentition 219 Permanent dentition 220 Screening 221 Etiology and pathogenesis 225 Bacterial etiology 225 Bacterial damage to the periodontium 228 Host response to bacterial pathogens 228 Genetic aspects of host susceptibility 231 Environmental aspects of host susceptibility 232 Current concepts 232 Diagnosis 233 Clinical diagnosis 233 Microbiologic diagnosis 235 Genetic diagnosis 237 Principles of therapeutic intervention 237 Elimination or suppression of the pathogenic flora 238 Chapter 10 Necrotizing Periodontal Disease 243 Palle Holmstrup and Jytte Westergaard Nomenclature 243 Prevalence 243 Clinical characteristics 244 Development of lesions 244 Interproximal craters 244 Sequestrum formation 246 Involvement of alveolar mucosa 246 Swelling of lymph nodes 246 Fever and malaise 248 Oral hygiene 248 Acute and recurrent/chronic forms of necrotizing gingivitis and periodontitis 249 Diagnosis 249 Differential diagnosis 249 Histopathology 250 Microbiology 251 Microorganisms isolated from necrotizing lesions 251 Pathogenic potential of microorganisms 252 Host response and predisposing factors 253 Systemic diseases 253 Poor oral hygiene, preexisting gingivitis and history of previous NPD 254 Psychologic stress and inadequate sleep 254 Smoking and alcohol use 254 Caucasian background 255 Young age 255 Treatment 255 Acute phase treatment 255 Maintenance phase treatment 257 Chapter 11 The Periodontal Abscess 260 Mariano Sanz, David Herrera and Arie J. van Winkelhoff Classification 260 Periodontitis-related abscess 260 Non-periodontitis-related abscess 261 Prevalence 261 Pathogenesis and histopathology 261 Microbiology 262 Diagnosis 262 Differential diagnosis 264 Treatment 264 Complications 266 Tooth loss 266 Dissemination of the infection 266 Chapter 12 Non-Plaque Induced Inflammatory Gingival Lesions 269 Palle Holmstrup and Daniel van Steenberghe Gingival diseases of specific bacterial origin 269 Gingival diseases of viral origin 269 Herpes virus infections 269 Gingival diseases of fungal origin 272 Candidosis 272 Linear gingival erythema 274 Histoplasmosis 275 Gingival lesions of genetic origin 275 Hereditary gingival fibromatosis 275 Gingival diseases of systemic origin 277 Mucocutaneous disorders 277 Allergic reactions 286 Other gingival manifestations of systemic conditions 287 Traumatic lesions 289 Chemical injury 289 Physical injury 289 Thermal injury 291 Foreign body reactions 291 Chapter 13 Differential Diagnoses: Periodontal Tumors and Cysts 298 Palle Holmstrup and Jesper Reibel Reactive processes of periodontal soft tissues 298 Fibroma/focal fibrous hyperplasia 298 Calcifying fibroblastic granuloma 300 Pyogenic granuloma 301 Peripheral giant cell granuloma 301 Reactive processes of periodontal hard tissues 302 Periapical cemental dysplasia 302 Benign neoplasms of periodontal soft tissues 303 Hemangioma 303 Nevus 304 Papilloma 304 Verruca vulgaris 305 Peripheral odontogenic tumors 305 Benign neoplasms of periodontal hard tissues 306 Ameloblastoma 306 Squamous odontogenic tumor 307 Benign cementoblastoma 308 Malignant neoplasms of periodontal soft tissues 308 Squamous cell carcinoma 308 Metastasis to the gingiva 309 Kaposi's sarcoma 310 VIII • CONTENTS Malignant lymphoma 310 Malignant neoplasms of periodontal hard tissues 311 Osteosarcoma 311 Langerhans cell disease 311 Cysts of the periodontium 312 Gingival cyst 313 Lateral periodontal cyst 313 Inflammatory pm-Mental cyst 314 Odontogenic keratocyst 314 Radicular cyst 315 Chapter 14 Endodontics and Periodontics 318 Gunnar Bergenholtz and Gunnar Hasselgren Influence of pathologic conditions in the pulp on the periodontium 319 Impact of disease conditions in the vital pulp 319 Impact of pulpal necrosis 319 Manifestations of endodontic lesions in the marginal periodontium from lateral canals 323 Manifestations of acute endodontic lesions in the marginal periodontium 324 Impact of endodontic treatment measures on the periodontium 326 Root perforations 328 Vertical root fracture 330 Influence of external root resorptions 333 Mechanisms of hard tissue resorption 333 Clinical manifestations of external root resorptions 334 Different forms of external root resorption 335 Influence of periodontal disease on the condition of the pulp 339 Influence of periodontal treatment measures on the pulp 340 Scaling and root planing 340 Root dentin hypersensitivity 341 Endodontic considerations in root resection of multirooted teeth in periodontal therapy 344 Differential diagnostic considerations 344 Treatment strategies for combined endodontic and periodontal lesions 346 e developments 397
ثوركيلد كرينج - Thorkild Karring . مساهمته في تطوير اللثة كانت معلقة. تخرج ثوركيلد من كلية طب الأسنان في آرهوس في عام 1968 حيث حصل على درجة الدكتوراه. في عام 1974. كان أستاذا مشاركا في قسم أمراض اللثة في آرهوس 1972-83 ، وأستاذ مساعد ، قسم أمراض اللثة ، جامعة ميشيغان ، الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية 1973-74 ، ونال محاضرا في قسم اللثة في غوتنبرغ 1976. في عام 1983 أصبح أستاذا ورئيسا من قسم أمراض اللثة في آرهوس من حيث تقاعد في عام 2007. وعمل ثوركيلد في منصب نائب عميد كلية طب الأسنان في آرهوس 1987-1991 وعميد 1991-1999. كان رئيس الجمعية الاسكندنافية 1988-90. قدم البروفيسور كارينغ مساهمة بارزة في تطوير علم أمراض اللثة ، لا سيما من خلال عمله في تجديد الأنسجة. ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry ❝ ❱
من كتب طب الأسنان - مكتبة كتب الطب.

وصف الكتاب : Clinical Periodontology
and Implant Dentistry
4th edition
Jan Lindhe
Thorkild Karring . Niklaus P. Lang
Editors

Contents
Foreword xv
Giorgio Vogel
Preface xvii
Jan Lindhe
Classification of Periodontal Diseases xix
Denis F. Kinane and Jan Lindhe
Adult periodontitis — chronic periodontitis
Early-onset forms of periodontitis — aggressive
periodontitis
Systemic disease forms of periodontitis
Necrotizing forms of periodontitis — necrotizing
forms of periodontal diseases
Contributors xxi
Basic Concepts
Chapter 1
Anatomy of the Periodontium 3
Jan Lindhe, Thorkild Karring and Mauricio Araujo
Introduction 3
Gingiva 5
Macroscopic anatomy 5
Microscopic anatomy 8
Periodontal ligament 27
Root cementum 31
Alveolar bone 34
Blood supply of the periodontium 43
Lymphatic system of the periodontium 47
Nerves of the periodontium 48
Chapter 2
Epidemiology of Periodontal Diseases 50
Panos N. Papapanou and Jan Lindhe
Methodological issues 50
Examination methods — index systems 50
Critical evaluation 52
Prevalence of periodontal diseases 54
Introduction 54
Periodontitis in adults 54
Periodontitis in children and adolescents 57
Periodontitis and tooth loss 61
Risk factors for periodontitis 61
Introduction and definitions 61
Studies of putative risk factors for periodontitis 63
Longitudinal studies and conclusions 68
Periodontal infections and risk for systemic disease
70
Atherosclerosis — cardiovascular/cerebrovascular
disease 70
Preterm birth 72
Diabetes mellitus 73
Concluding remarks 73
Chapter 3
Dental Plaque and Calculus 81
Niklaus P. Lang, Andrea Mombelli and Rolf Attstrom
Microbial considerations 81
General introduction to plaque formation 83
Dental plaque as a biofilm 85 Structure of
dental plaque 85
Supragingival plaque 85
Subgingival plaque 90
Peri-implant plaque 98
Dental calculus 98
Clinical appearance, distribution and clinical
diagnosis 98
Attachment to tooth surfaces and implants 100
Mineralization, composition and structure 101
Clinical implications 102
Chapter 4
Microbiology of Periodontal Disease 106
Sigmund S. Socransky and Anne D. Haffajee
Introduction 106
Periodontal diseases and other infectious diseases 106
Unique features of periodontal infections 107
Historical perspective 108
The early search 108
The decline of interest in microorganisms 110
Non-specific plaque hypothesis 110
Mixed anaerobic infections 110
VI • CONTENTS
Return to specificity in microbial etiology of
periodontal diseases 110
Changing concepts of the microbial etiology of
periodontal diseases 111
Current suspected pathogens of destructive
periodontal diseases 112
Criteria for defining periodontal pathogens 112
Periodontal pathogens 114 Mixed infections
122
The nature of dental plaque —
the biofilm way of life 122
The nature of biofilms 122
Properties of biofilms 123
The oral biofilms that lead to periodontal diseases 125
Microbial complexes 126
Factors that affect the composition of subgingival
biofilms 127
Microbial composition of supra and subgingival
biofilms 132
Prerequisites for periodontal disease initiation and
progression 132
The virulent periodontal pathogen 133
The local environment 133 Host
susceptibility 134
Mechanisms of pathogenicity 135
Essential factors for colonization of a subgingival
species 135
Final comments 139
Chapter 5
Host-Parasite Interactions in Periodontal Disease
150
Denis F. Kinane, Tord Berglundh and Jan Lindhe
Initiation and progression of periodontal disease
150
Introduction 150
Initiation of periodontal disease 150
Initial, early, established and advanced lesions 155
Host-parasite interactions 163
Introduction 163
Microbial virulence factors 164
Host defense processes 165
Overall summary 175
Chapter 6
Modifying Factors: Diabetes, Puberty, Pregnancy
and the Menopause and Tobacco Smoking 179
Richard Palmer and Mena Soory
Diabetes mellitus 179
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus 180
Clinical symptoms 180
Oral and periodontal effects 180
Association of periodontal infection and diabetic
control 181
Modification of the host/bacteria relationship in
diabetes 182
Periodontal treatment 183
Puberty, pregnancy and the menopause 183
Puberty and menstruation 184
Pregnancy 184
Periodontal treatment during pregnancy 186
Menopause and osteoporosis 186
Hormonal contraceptives 187
Tobacco smoking 188
Periodontal disease in smokers 189
Modification of the host/bacteria relationship in
smoking 190
Smoking cessation 192
Chapter 7
Plaque Induced Gingival Disease 198
Noel Claffey
Histopathologic features of gingivitis 200
Gingivitis associated with local contributing factors
200
Tooth abnormalities such as enamel pearls and
cemental tears 200
Dental restorations 200
Root fractures 201
Cervical root resorption 201
Treatment of plaque induced gingivitis 201
Gingival diseases modified by endocrine factors
(see also Chapter 6) 201
Pregnancy associated gingivitis 201
Puberty associated gingivitis 202
Menstrual cycle associated gingivitis 202
Pyogenic granuloma of pregnancy 202
Gingival diseases modified by malnutrition 202
Gingival diseases modified by systemic conditions
203
Diabetes mellitus 203
Leukemias and other blood dysplasias 203
Gingival diseases modified by medications 203
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (see also
Chapter 10) 205
Microbiology, host response and predisposing factors
205
Host response in acute necrotizing ulcerative
gingivitis 206
Treatment of NUG 207
Chapter 8
Chronic Periodontitis 209
Denis F. Kinane and Jan Lindhe
Risk factors or susceptibility to chronic periodontitis
211
Bacterial risk factors 211
Age 211
Smoking 211
Host response related 212
Scientific basis for periodontal therapy 213
Tooth loss 213
Subgingival instrumentation and maintenance 213
Effect of surgical treatment 214
Comparisons of surgical and non-surgical therapy
214
CONTENTS • VII
Chapter 9
Aggressive Periodontitis 216
Maurizio S. Tonetti and Andrea
Mombelli
Classification and clinical syndromes 217
Epidemiology 218
Primary dentition 219
Permanent dentition 220
Screening 221
Etiology and pathogenesis 225
Bacterial etiology 225
Bacterial damage to the periodontium 228 Host
response to bacterial pathogens 228 Genetic
aspects of host susceptibility 231 Environmental
aspects of host susceptibility 232 Current
concepts 232
Diagnosis 233
Clinical diagnosis 233
Microbiologic diagnosis 235
Genetic diagnosis 237
Principles of therapeutic intervention 237
Elimination or suppression of the pathogenic flora 238
Chapter 10
Necrotizing Periodontal Disease 243
Palle Holmstrup and Jytte Westergaard
Nomenclature 243
Prevalence 243
Clinical characteristics 244
Development of lesions 244
Interproximal craters 244
Sequestrum formation 246
Involvement of alveolar mucosa 246
Swelling of lymph nodes 246
Fever and malaise 248
Oral hygiene 248
Acute and recurrent/chronic forms of necrotizing
gingivitis and periodontitis 249
Diagnosis 249
Differential diagnosis 249
Histopathology 250
Microbiology 251
Microorganisms isolated from necrotizing lesions 251
Pathogenic potential of microorganisms 252
Host response and predisposing factors 253
Systemic diseases 253
Poor oral hygiene, preexisting gingivitis and history of
previous NPD 254
Psychologic stress and inadequate sleep 254
Smoking and alcohol use 254
Caucasian background 255
Young age 255
Treatment 255
Acute phase treatment 255
Maintenance phase treatment 257
Chapter 11
The Periodontal Abscess 260
Mariano Sanz, David Herrera and Arie J. van
Winkelhoff
Classification 260
Periodontitis-related abscess 260
Non-periodontitis-related abscess 261
Prevalence 261
Pathogenesis and histopathology 261
Microbiology 262
Diagnosis 262
Differential diagnosis 264
Treatment 264
Complications 266
Tooth loss 266
Dissemination of the infection 266
Chapter 12
Non-Plaque Induced Inflammatory Gingival
Lesions 269
Palle Holmstrup and Daniel van Steenberghe
Gingival diseases of specific bacterial origin 269
Gingival diseases of viral origin 269
Herpes virus infections 269
Gingival diseases of fungal origin 272
Candidosis 272
Linear gingival erythema 274
Histoplasmosis 275
Gingival lesions of genetic origin 275
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis 275
Gingival diseases of systemic origin 277
Mucocutaneous disorders 277
Allergic reactions 286
Other gingival manifestations of systemic conditions
287
Traumatic lesions 289
Chemical injury 289
Physical injury 289 Thermal
injury 291 Foreign body
reactions 291
Chapter 13
Differential Diagnoses: Periodontal Tumors and
Cysts 298
Palle Holmstrup and Jesper Reibel
Reactive processes of periodontal soft tissues 298
Fibroma/focal fibrous hyperplasia 298
Calcifying fibroblastic granuloma 300
Pyogenic granuloma 301
Peripheral giant cell granuloma 301
Reactive processes of periodontal hard tissues 302
Periapical cemental dysplasia 302
Benign neoplasms of periodontal soft tissues 303
Hemangioma 303
Nevus 304
Papilloma 304
Verruca vulgaris 305
Peripheral odontogenic tumors 305
Benign neoplasms of periodontal hard tissues 306
Ameloblastoma 306
Squamous odontogenic tumor 307
Benign cementoblastoma 308
Malignant neoplasms of periodontal soft tissues 308
Squamous cell carcinoma 308
Metastasis to the gingiva 309
Kaposi's sarcoma 310
VIII • CONTENTS
Malignant lymphoma 310
Malignant neoplasms of periodontal hard tissues
311
Osteosarcoma 311
Langerhans cell disease 311
Cysts of the periodontium 312
Gingival cyst 313
Lateral periodontal cyst 313
Inflammatory pm-Mental cyst 314
Odontogenic keratocyst 314
Radicular cyst 315
Chapter 14
Endodontics and Periodontics 318
Gunnar Bergenholtz and Gunnar Hasselgren
Influence of pathologic conditions in the pulp on
the periodontium 319
Impact of disease conditions in the vital pulp 319
Impact of pulpal necrosis 319
Manifestations of endodontic lesions in the marginal
periodontium from lateral canals 323
Manifestations of acute endodontic lesions in the
marginal periodontium 324
Impact of endodontic treatment measures on the
periodontium 326
Root perforations 328
Vertical root fracture 330
Influence of external root resorptions 333
Mechanisms of hard tissue resorption 333
Clinical manifestations of external root resorptions
334
Different forms of external root resorption 335
Influence of periodontal disease on the condition of
the pulp 339
Influence of periodontal treatment measures on the
pulp 340
Scaling and root planing 340 Root
dentin hypersensitivity 341
Endodontic considerations in root resection of
multirooted teeth in periodontal therapy 344
Differential diagnostic considerations 344
Treatment strategies for combined endodontic and
periodontal lesions 346
e developments 397


سنة النشر : 2015م / 1436هـ .
عدد مرات التحميل : 9809 مرّة / مرات.
تم اضافته في : الجمعة , 23 فبراير 2018م.
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 60 ميجا بايت .

ولتسجيل ملاحظاتك ورأيك حول الكتاب يمكنك المشاركه في التعليقات من هنا:

التعويضات السنية Prosthodontics وتشمل
الجسور الثابتة Fixed bridges والزرعات Implants
الطقوم الكاملة المتحركة removable complete denture
الطقوم الجزئية المتحركة removable partial denture
معالجة و إصلاح الأسنان Operative Dentistry وتشمل:
تشخيص تسوس الأسنان caries diagnosis
الوقايه والحد من انتشار تسوس الاسنان management of dental caries
تبييض الأسنان Dentalbleaching
تجميل الأسنان cosmetic dentistry
حشوات الأسنان Dental Fillings
معالجة لب الأسنان Endodontics
معالجة الأسنان المجهرية microscopic endodontics
طب الأسنان الوقائي Preventive Dentistry
تقويم الأسنان Orthodontics
جراحة الفم والوجه والفكين Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
طب أسنان الأطفال Pedodontics
أمراض اللثة
أمراض الأنسجة المحيطة بالأسنان Periodontics
زراعة الأسنان Dental Implantology
أشعة الأسنان Dental Radiology
طب الأسنان الشرعي Forensic Dentistry
طب الفم Oral Medicine
أمراض الفم Oral Pathology
أنسجة الفم والأسنان Oral Histology
المادة السنية Dental material
تشريح الأسنانDental anatomy
مواضيع متعلقة بطب الأسنان
طب الأسنان للرضع
جراحة الأسنان
أسنان
طقم أسنان
طب الاسنان في الاردن
طب الأسنان في جميع أنحاء العالم

Clinical Periodontology
and Implant Dentistry
4th edition
Jan Lindhe
Thorkild Karring . Niklaus P. Lang
Editors

Contents
Foreword xv
Giorgio Vogel
Preface xvii
Jan Lindhe
Classification of Periodontal Diseases xix
Denis F. Kinane and Jan Lindhe
Adult periodontitis — chronic periodontitis
Early-onset forms of periodontitis — aggressive
periodontitis
Systemic disease forms of periodontitis
Necrotizing forms of periodontitis — necrotizing
forms of periodontal diseases
Contributors xxi
Basic Concepts
Chapter 1
Anatomy of the Periodontium 3
Jan Lindhe, Thorkild Karring and Mauricio Araujo
Introduction 3
Gingiva 5
Macroscopic anatomy 5
Microscopic anatomy 8
Periodontal ligament 27
Root cementum 31
Alveolar bone 34
Blood supply of the periodontium 43
Lymphatic system of the periodontium 47
Nerves of the periodontium 48
Chapter 2
Epidemiology of Periodontal Diseases 50
Panos N. Papapanou and Jan Lindhe
Methodological issues 50
Examination methods — index systems 50
Critical evaluation 52
Prevalence of periodontal diseases 54
Introduction 54
Periodontitis in adults 54
Periodontitis in children and adolescents 57
Periodontitis and tooth loss 61
Risk factors for periodontitis 61
Introduction and definitions 61
Studies of putative risk factors for periodontitis 63
Longitudinal studies and conclusions 68
Periodontal infections and risk for systemic disease
70
Atherosclerosis — cardiovascular/cerebrovascular
disease 70
Preterm birth 72
Diabetes mellitus 73
Concluding remarks 73
Chapter 3
Dental Plaque and Calculus 81
Niklaus P. Lang, Andrea Mombelli and Rolf Attstrom
Microbial considerations 81
General introduction to plaque formation 83
Dental plaque as a biofilm 85 Structure of
dental plaque 85
Supragingival plaque 85
Subgingival plaque 90
Peri-implant plaque 98
Dental calculus 98
Clinical appearance, distribution and clinical
diagnosis 98
Attachment to tooth surfaces and implants 100
Mineralization, composition and structure 101
Clinical implications 102
Chapter 4
Microbiology of Periodontal Disease 106
Sigmund S. Socransky and Anne D. Haffajee
Introduction 106
Periodontal diseases and other infectious diseases 106
Unique features of periodontal infections 107
Historical perspective 108
The early search 108
The decline of interest in microorganisms 110
Non-specific plaque hypothesis 110
Mixed anaerobic infections 110
VI • CONTENTS
Return to specificity in microbial etiology of
periodontal diseases 110
Changing concepts of the microbial etiology of
periodontal diseases 111
Current suspected pathogens of destructive
periodontal diseases 112
Criteria for defining periodontal pathogens 112
Periodontal pathogens 114 Mixed infections
122
The nature of dental plaque —
the biofilm way of life 122
The nature of biofilms 122
Properties of biofilms 123
The oral biofilms that lead to periodontal diseases 125
Microbial complexes 126
Factors that affect the composition of subgingival
biofilms 127
Microbial composition of supra and subgingival
biofilms 132
Prerequisites for periodontal disease initiation and
progression 132
The virulent periodontal pathogen 133
The local environment 133 Host
susceptibility 134
Mechanisms of pathogenicity 135
Essential factors for colonization of a subgingival
species 135
Final comments 139
Chapter 5
Host-Parasite Interactions in Periodontal Disease
150
Denis F. Kinane, Tord Berglundh and Jan Lindhe
Initiation and progression of periodontal disease
150
Introduction 150
Initiation of periodontal disease 150
Initial, early, established and advanced lesions 155
Host-parasite interactions 163
Introduction 163
Microbial virulence factors 164
Host defense processes 165
Overall summary 175
Chapter 6
Modifying Factors: Diabetes, Puberty, Pregnancy
and the Menopause and Tobacco Smoking 179
Richard Palmer and Mena Soory
Diabetes mellitus 179
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus 180
Clinical symptoms 180
Oral and periodontal effects 180
Association of periodontal infection and diabetic
control 181
Modification of the host/bacteria relationship in
diabetes 182
Periodontal treatment 183
Puberty, pregnancy and the menopause 183
Puberty and menstruation 184
Pregnancy 184
Periodontal treatment during pregnancy 186
Menopause and osteoporosis 186
Hormonal contraceptives 187
Tobacco smoking 188
Periodontal disease in smokers 189
Modification of the host/bacteria relationship in
smoking 190
Smoking cessation 192
Chapter 7
Plaque Induced Gingival Disease 198
Noel Claffey
Histopathologic features of gingivitis 200
Gingivitis associated with local contributing factors
200
Tooth abnormalities such as enamel pearls and
cemental tears 200
Dental restorations 200
Root fractures 201
Cervical root resorption 201
Treatment of plaque induced gingivitis 201
Gingival diseases modified by endocrine factors
(see also Chapter 6) 201
Pregnancy associated gingivitis 201
Puberty associated gingivitis 202
Menstrual cycle associated gingivitis 202
Pyogenic granuloma of pregnancy 202
Gingival diseases modified by malnutrition 202
Gingival diseases modified by systemic conditions
203
Diabetes mellitus 203
Leukemias and other blood dysplasias 203
Gingival diseases modified by medications 203
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (see also
Chapter 10) 205
Microbiology, host response and predisposing factors
205
Host response in acute necrotizing ulcerative
gingivitis 206
Treatment of NUG 207
Chapter 8
Chronic Periodontitis 209
Denis F. Kinane and Jan Lindhe
Risk factors or susceptibility to chronic periodontitis
211
Bacterial risk factors 211
Age 211
Smoking 211
Host response related 212
Scientific basis for periodontal therapy 213
Tooth loss 213
Subgingival instrumentation and maintenance 213
Effect of surgical treatment 214
Comparisons of surgical and non-surgical therapy
214
CONTENTS • VII
Chapter 9
Aggressive Periodontitis 216
Maurizio S. Tonetti and Andrea
Mombelli
Classification and clinical syndromes 217
Epidemiology 218
Primary dentition 219
Permanent dentition 220
Screening 221
Etiology and pathogenesis 225
Bacterial etiology 225
Bacterial damage to the periodontium 228 Host
response to bacterial pathogens 228 Genetic
aspects of host susceptibility 231 Environmental
aspects of host susceptibility 232 Current
concepts 232
Diagnosis 233
Clinical diagnosis 233
Microbiologic diagnosis 235
Genetic diagnosis 237
Principles of therapeutic intervention 237
Elimination or suppression of the pathogenic flora 238
Chapter 10
Necrotizing Periodontal Disease 243
Palle Holmstrup and Jytte Westergaard
Nomenclature 243
Prevalence 243
Clinical characteristics 244
Development of lesions 244
Interproximal craters 244
Sequestrum formation 246
Involvement of alveolar mucosa 246
Swelling of lymph nodes 246
Fever and malaise 248
Oral hygiene 248
Acute and recurrent/chronic forms of necrotizing
gingivitis and periodontitis 249
Diagnosis 249
Differential diagnosis 249
Histopathology 250
Microbiology 251
Microorganisms isolated from necrotizing lesions 251
Pathogenic potential of microorganisms 252
Host response and predisposing factors 253
Systemic diseases 253
Poor oral hygiene, preexisting gingivitis and history of
previous NPD 254
Psychologic stress and inadequate sleep 254
Smoking and alcohol use 254
Caucasian background 255
Young age 255
Treatment 255
Acute phase treatment 255
Maintenance phase treatment 257
Chapter 11
The Periodontal Abscess 260
Mariano Sanz, David Herrera and Arie J. van
Winkelhoff
Classification 260
Periodontitis-related abscess 260
Non-periodontitis-related abscess 261
Prevalence 261
Pathogenesis and histopathology 261
Microbiology 262
Diagnosis 262
Differential diagnosis 264
Treatment 264
Complications 266
Tooth loss 266
Dissemination of the infection 266
Chapter 12
Non-Plaque Induced Inflammatory Gingival
Lesions 269
Palle Holmstrup and Daniel van Steenberghe
Gingival diseases of specific bacterial origin 269
Gingival diseases of viral origin 269
Herpes virus infections 269
Gingival diseases of fungal origin 272
Candidosis 272
Linear gingival erythema 274
Histoplasmosis 275
Gingival lesions of genetic origin 275
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis 275
Gingival diseases of systemic origin 277
Mucocutaneous disorders 277
Allergic reactions 286
Other gingival manifestations of systemic conditions
287
Traumatic lesions 289
Chemical injury 289
Physical injury 289 Thermal
injury 291 Foreign body
reactions 291
Chapter 13
Differential Diagnoses: Periodontal Tumors and
Cysts 298
Palle Holmstrup and Jesper Reibel
Reactive processes of periodontal soft tissues 298
Fibroma/focal fibrous hyperplasia 298
Calcifying fibroblastic granuloma 300
Pyogenic granuloma 301
Peripheral giant cell granuloma 301
Reactive processes of periodontal hard tissues 302
Periapical cemental dysplasia 302
Benign neoplasms of periodontal soft tissues 303
Hemangioma 303
Nevus 304
Papilloma 304
Verruca vulgaris 305
Peripheral odontogenic tumors 305
Benign neoplasms of periodontal hard tissues 306
Ameloblastoma 306
Squamous odontogenic tumor 307
Benign cementoblastoma 308
Malignant neoplasms of periodontal soft tissues 308
Squamous cell carcinoma 308
Metastasis to the gingiva 309
Kaposi's sarcoma 310
VIII • CONTENTS
Malignant lymphoma 310
Malignant neoplasms of periodontal hard tissues
311
Osteosarcoma 311
Langerhans cell disease 311
Cysts of the periodontium 312
Gingival cyst 313
Lateral periodontal cyst 313
Inflammatory pm-Mental cyst 314
Odontogenic keratocyst 314
Radicular cyst 315
Chapter 14
Endodontics and Periodontics 318
Gunnar Bergenholtz and Gunnar Hasselgren
Influence of pathologic conditions in the pulp on
the periodontium 319
Impact of disease conditions in the vital pulp 319
Impact of pulpal necrosis 319
Manifestations of endodontic lesions in the marginal
periodontium from lateral canals 323
Manifestations of acute endodontic lesions in the
marginal periodontium 324
Impact of endodontic treatment measures on the
periodontium 326
Root perforations 328
Vertical root fracture 330
Influence of external root resorptions 333
Mechanisms of hard tissue resorption 333
Clinical manifestations of external root resorptions
334
Different forms of external root resorption 335
Influence of periodontal disease on the condition of
the pulp 339
Influence of periodontal treatment measures on the
pulp 340
Scaling and root planing 340 Root
dentin hypersensitivity 341
Endodontic considerations in root resection of
multirooted teeth in periodontal therapy 344
Differential diagnostic considerations 344
Treatment strategies for combined endodontic and
periodontal lesions 346
e developments 397


The fifth edition of Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry brings to its readers another iteration of the unrivalled, unparalleled work on the specialty of periodontics. The editors have brought together contributions from experts all over the world to provide the reader with a comprehensive, cohesive text that fuses scholarship and science with clinical instruction and pragmatism. With an increase in length of approximately 25% and 15 new chapters, the new edition of Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry runs the gamut of sub-disciplines and topics within periodontics and implant dentistry, supporting an intellectually and internationally inclusive approach. 
 

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ثوركيلد  كرينج
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Thorkild Karring
Thorkild Karring . مساهمته في تطوير اللثة كانت معلقة. تخرج ثوركيلد من كلية طب الأسنان في آرهوس في عام 1968 حيث حصل على درجة الدكتوراه. في عام 1974. كان أستاذا مشاركا في قسم أمراض اللثة في آرهوس 1972-83 ، وأستاذ مساعد ، قسم أمراض اللثة ، جامعة ميشيغان ، الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية 1973-74 ، ونال محاضرا في قسم اللثة في غوتنبرغ 1976. في عام 1983 أصبح أستاذا ورئيسا من قسم أمراض اللثة في آرهوس من حيث تقاعد في عام 2007. وعمل ثوركيلد في منصب نائب عميد كلية طب الأسنان في آرهوس 1987-1991 وعميد 1991-1999. كان رئيس الجمعية الاسكندنافية 1988-90. قدم البروفيسور كارينغ مساهمة بارزة في تطوير علم أمراض اللثة ، لا سيما من خلال عمله في تجديد الأنسجة. ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry ❝ ❱.



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