كتاب Florfenicol

كتاب  Florfenicolالمكتبة الإلكترونيّة لتحميل و قراءة الكتب المصوّرة بنوعية PDF و تعمل على الهواتف الذكية والاجهزة الكفيّة أونلاين 📖 حصريا قراءة كتاب Florfenicol أونلاين PDF 2017.

وصف الكتاب : Florfenicol من كتب طب بيطرى © 2007 The United States Pharmacopeial Convention All rights reserved 1 FLORFENICOL (Veterinary—Systemic) Some commonly used brand names for veterinary-labeled products are: Aquaflor and Nuflor. Note: For a listing of dosage forms and brand names by country availability, see the Dosage Forms section(s). Category: Antibacterial (systemic). Indications Note: The text between EL US and EL describes uses that are not included in U.S. product labeling. Text between EL CAN and EL describes uses that are not included in Canadian product labeling. The EL US or EL CAN designation can signify a lack of product availability in the country indicated. See the Dosage Forms section of this monograph to confirm availability. General considerations Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum, pr imarily bacteriostatic, antibiotic with a range of activity similar to that of chloramphenicol, including many gram-negative and gram-positive organisms; {R-1} however, florfenicol does not carry the risk of inducing human aplastic anemia that is asso ciated with chloramphenicol. {R-13} Florfenicol has been dem onstrated to be active in vitro and in vivo against Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Haemophilus somnus. {R-1; 2} In vitro studies have demonstrated florfenicol activity against Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella dysenteriae {R-2; 15; 16} but with at least a 2- to 10-fold higher minimum inhibitory con centration than that for the Mannheimia, Pasteurella and Haemophilus species listed above. {R-15; 16} It also has activity against some chloramphenicol- resistant strains of bacteria, {R-17} possibly because it is less affected by the major enzyme produced in plasmid-mediated bacterial resistance against chloram phenicol and thiamphenicol. {R-2; 26} Although the activity of florfenicol against obligate anaerobes is not addressed in the literature, it is likely to be quite effective. {R-28} Accepted EL CAN Enteric septicemia (treatment) EL — Catfish: Florfenicol Type A medicated article is indicated in the control of mortality due to enteric septicemia caused by susceptible strains of Edwardsiella ictaluri . {R-36} EL US Furunculosis (treatment) EL — Salmon: Florfenicol Type A medicated article is indicated in the treatment of furunculosis caused by susceptible strains of Aeromonas salmonicida . {R-11} EL US Keratoconjunctivitis, infectious (treatment) EL — Cattle: Florfenicol injection is indicated in Canadian product labeling in the treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis caused by Moraxella bovis. {R-3; 33; 34} Pneumonia, bacterial (treatment)— Cattle: Florfenicol injection is indicated in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia and associated respiratory infections (bovine respiratory disease complex) in cattle caused by susceptible H. somnus, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida. {R-1; 3} EL CAN Florfenicol injection is also indicated in the control of bacterial pneumonia and associated respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing infection associated with susceptible H. somnus, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida. EL {R- 1; 3; 32} Pigs : EL CAN Florfenicol oral solution EL and EL US florfenicol injection EL are indicated in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia and associated respiratory infec tions caused by susceptible Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, P. multocida, EL CAN Salmonella choleraesuis, and Streptococcus suis Type 2 EL . {R-3; 37} Pododermatitis, infectious (treatment)— Cattle: Florfenicol injection is indicated in the treatment of infectious pododermatitis (interdigital phlegmon) asso ciated with susceptible Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. {R-1; 3; 30} Regulatory Considerations U.S.— Withdrawal times have been estab lished for florfenicol in catfish and cattle; however, it is not labeled for use in lactating dairy cattle or in veal calves (see the Dosage Forms section). {R-1; 36} Canada— Withdrawal times have been esta blished for florfenicol in cattle and salmon; however, it is not labeled for use in lactating dairy cattle or in veal calves (see the Dosage Forms section). {R-3; 11} Chemistry Source: A fluorinated derivative of thiamphenicol. {R-12} Chemical name: Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro- N -[1-(flouromethyl)-2- hydroxy-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]ethyl]-[ R -( R*,S* )]-. {R-4} Molecular formula: C 12 H 14 C l2 FNO 4 S. {R-14} Molecular weight: 358.21. {R-4} Description: Melting point 153 to 154 ̊ C. {R-12} Solubility: Soluble in water. {R-12; 13} Lipid soluble. {R-13} Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics Mechanism of action/Effect: Florfenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria , leading to the inhibition of peptidyl transferase {R-1; 13; 26} and thereby preventing the transfer of amino acids to growing peptide chains and subsequent protein formation. The bacterial receptor that is the site of action for florfenicol is considered to be the same as that for chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. {R-13; 26} In the treatment of bovine respiratory disease, florfenicol may be considered bactericidal against some Mannheimia ( Pasteurella) hemolytica and Pasteurella multocida when it is administered to achieve minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); {R-14} the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) are very close to the MICs. Florfenicol has a fluorine atom instead of the hydroxyl group located at C-3 in the structure of ch loramphenicol and thiamphenicol. {R-13} This may allow florfenicol to be less susceptible to deactivation by bacteria with plasmid-transm issible resistance that involves acetylation of the C-3 hydroxyl group in chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, and prevents th eir interaction with bacterial ribosomes. {R-13; 26} Other actions/effects: Florfenicol, like thiamphenicol, lacks the nitro group located on the chloramphenicol aromatic ring that has been associated with chloramphenicol-induced, non–dose-related, irreversible aplastic anemia in people. {R-13; 24; 25} However, chloramphenicol and thiamphenico l also cause a dose-dependent, reversible bone marrow suppression in some animals and people {R-13} due to mitochondrial injury. {R-24} It is theoretically possible that florfenicol coul d cause some dose-dependent, reversible bone marrow suppression, but it has not been clinically reported. {R-13} Absorption: Bioavailability— Intramuscular administration: Calves, 3 to 6 months of age—78.5% (range 59.3 to 106%), with a dose of 20 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg). {R-1; 2; 8} Cattle, lactating—38 ± 14%, with a dose of 20 mg/kg. {R-9} Horses —81%, with a dose of 22 mg/kg
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تم اضافته في : السبت , 26 مارس 2016م.
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Florfenicol من كتب طب بيطرى

FLORFENICOL 
(Veterinary—Systemic) 
Some commonly used 
brand names 
for veterinary-labeled products 
are: 
Aquaflor 
and 
Nuflor. 
Note: For a listing of dosage forms and brand names by country 
availability, see the 
Dosage Forms 
section(s). 
Category: 
Antibacterial (systemic). 
Indications 
Note: The text between 
EL
US
and
EL
 describes uses that are not included 
in U.S. product labeling. Text between 
EL
CAN
and
EL
 describes uses 
that are not included in Canadian product labeling. 
The 
EL
US
or 
EL
CAN
 designation can signify a lack of product 
availability in the country indicated. See the 
Dosage Forms
section of this monograph to confirm availability. 
General considerations 
Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum, pr
imarily bacteriostatic, antibiotic 
with a range of activity similar 
to that of chloramphenicol, 
including many gram-negative and gram-positive organisms;
{R-1}
however, florfenicol does not carry
 the risk of inducing human 
aplastic anemia that is asso
ciated with chloramphenicol.
{R-13}
Florfenicol has been dem
onstrated to be active 
in vitro 
and 
in vivo 
against 
Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, Pasteurella 
multocida, 
and 
Haemophilus somnus.
{R-1; 2}
In vitro 
studies have 
demonstrated florfenicol activity against 
Enterobacter cloacae, 
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, 
and 
Shigella dysenteriae
{R-2; 15; 16}
but with at least a 2- to 10-fold 
higher minimum inhibitory con
centration than that for the 
Mannheimia, Pasteurella 
and 
Haemophilus 
species listed 
above.
{R-15; 16}
 It also has activity against some chloramphenicol-
resistant strains of bacteria,
{R-17}
 possibly because it is less affected 
by the major enzyme produced in
 plasmid-mediated bacterial 
resistance against chloram
phenicol and thiamphenicol.
{R-2; 26}
Although the activity of florfenicol against obligate anaerobes is 
not addressed in the literature, it 
is likely to be quite effective.
{R-28}
Accepted 
EL
CAN
Enteric septicemia (treatment)
EL

Catfish: 
Florfenicol Type A 
medicated article is indicated in 
the control of mortality due to 
enteric septicemia caused by
 susceptible strains of 
Edwardsiella 
ictaluri
.
{R-36}
EL
US
Furunculosis (treatment)
EL

Salmon: 
Florfenicol Type A 
medicated article is indicated in the treatment of furunculosis 
caused by susceptible strains of 
Aeromonas salmonicida
.
{R-11}
EL
US
Keratoconjunctivitis, infectious (treatment)
EL

Cattle:
 Florfenicol 
injection is indicated in Canadian product labeling in the 
treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis caused by 
Moraxella bovis.
{R-3; 33; 34}
Pneumonia, bacterial (treatment)— 
Cattle: 
Florfenicol injection is indicated in the treatment of 
bacterial pneumonia and associated respiratory infections 
(bovine respiratory disease 
complex) in cattle caused by 
susceptible 
H. somnus, M. haemolytica,
 and
 P. multocida.
{R-1; 
3}
EL
CAN
Florfenicol injection is also indicated in the control of 
bacterial pneumonia and associated respiratory disease in 
cattle at high risk of developing infection associated with 
susceptible 
H. somnus, M. haemolytica,
 and 
P. multocida.
EL
{R-
1; 3; 32} 
Pigs
:
EL
CAN
Florfenicol oral solution
EL
 and 
EL
US
florfenicol injection
EL
are indicated in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia and 
associated respiratory infec
tions caused by susceptible 
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae,
P. multocida, 
EL
CAN
Salmonella choleraesuis, 
and 
Streptococcus suis 
Type 
2
EL
.
{R-3; 37}
Pododermatitis, infectious (treatment)—
Cattle: 
Florfenicol injection is 
indicated in the treatment 
of infectious pododermatitis 
(interdigital phlegmon) asso
ciated with susceptible 
Bacteroides 
melaninogenicus 
and 
Fusobacterium necrophorum.
{R-1; 3; 30}
Regulatory Considerations 
U.S.— 
Withdrawal times have been estab
lished for florfenicol in catfish 
and cattle; however, it is not labeled for use in lactating dairy 
cattle or in veal calves
(see the 
Dosage Forms 
section).
{R-1; 36}
Canada— 
Withdrawal times have been esta
blished for florfenicol in cattle 
and salmon; however, it is not 
labeled for use in lactating 
dairy cattle
or in veal calves (see the 
Dosage Forms 
section).
{R-3; 11}
Chemistry 
Source: 
A fluorinated derivative of thiamphenicol.
{R-12}
Chemical name: 
Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-
N
-[1-(flouromethyl)-2-
hydroxy-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]ethyl]-[
R
-(
R*,S*
)]-.
{R-4}
Molecular formula: 
C
12
H
14
C
l2
FNO
4
S.
{R-14}
Molecular weight: 
358.21.
{R-4}
Description: 
Melting point 153 to 154 
 ̊
C.
{R-12}
Solubility: 
Soluble in water.
{R-12; 13}
 Lipid soluble.
{R-13}
Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics 
Mechanism of action/Effect: 
Florfenicol is a bacteriostatic 
antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal 
subunits of susceptible bacteria
, leading to the inhibition of 
peptidyl transferase
{R-1; 13; 26}
and thereby preventing the transfer of 
amino acids to growing peptide 
chains and subsequent protein 
formation. The bacterial receptor that is the site of action for 
florfenicol is considered to be the same as that for 
chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol.
{R-13; 26}
 In the treatment of 
bovine respiratory disease, florfenicol may be considered 
bactericidal against some 
Mannheimia
 (
Pasteurella) hemolytica 
and 
Pasteurella multocida 
when it is administered to achieve 
minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs);
{R-14}
 the minimum 
bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) are very close to the MICs.  
Florfenicol has a fluorine atom instead of the hydroxyl group located 
at C-3 in the structure of ch
loramphenicol and thiamphenicol.
{R-13}
This may allow florfenicol to be
 less susceptible to deactivation 
by bacteria with plasmid-transm
issible resistance that involves 
acetylation of the C-3 hydroxyl 
group in chloramphenicol and 
thiamphenicol, and prevents th
eir interaction with bacterial 
ribosomes.
{R-13; 26}
Other actions/effects: 
Florfenicol, like thiamphenicol, lacks the 
nitro group located on the chloramphenicol aromatic ring that has 
been associated with
 chloramphenicol-induced, non–dose-related, 
irreversible aplastic anemia in people.
{R-13; 24; 25}
 However, 
chloramphenicol and thiamphenico
l also cause a dose-dependent, 
reversible bone marrow suppression in some animals and 
people
{R-13}
due to mitochondrial injury.
{R-24}
 It is theoretically 
possible that florfenicol coul
d cause some dose-dependent, 
reversible bone marrow suppression, but it has not been clinically 
reported.
{R-13}
Absorption: 
Bioavailability— 
Intramuscular administration: 
Calves, 
3 to 6 months of age—78.5% (range 59.3 to 106%), 
with a dose of 20 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg).
{R-1; 
2; 8}
Cattle, 
lactating—38 
±
 14%, with a dose of 20 mg/kg.
{R-9}
Horses
—81%, with a dose of 22 mg/kg

Florfenicol
florfenicol in poultry
florfenicol injection
florfenicol solubility
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